Child's face  MyRead: strategies for reaching reading in the middle years
explicit teaching
monitoring and assessment
classroom organisation
professional development
further readings


What successful readers know and do

This resource has many varied strategies; however all the Guides use the Freebody and Luke Four Roles/Resources Model as a basis for identifying the particular emphases of each Guide and how it supports particular components of reading. Where the Guide emphasises one particular role, eg the code breaker role of phonemic awareness, the Guide suggests ways in which other roles can be developed.

The Four Roles/Resources Model was developed as a means of responding to the complexity of reading and the changing and challenging demands in order to be a successful reader in today’s world.

Whatever developmental point students are at, all four roles need to be taught systematically and explicitly, and crafted by the professionally well informed teacher making decisions about the emphasis and ways of intertwining these roles based on knowledge of their students.

Four Roles/Resources of the Successful Reader

Roles/Resources What successful readers know and do
Code breaker
decoding the codes and conventions of written, spoken and visual text


  • the relationship between spoken sounds and written symbols
  • the grammar of texts
  • the structural conventions of texts
Text user
understanding the purposes of different written, spoken and visual texts for different cultural and social functions

Know that

  • different types of texts have different purposes
  • these purposes shape the way texts are structured and formed

Apply this knowledge in using (eg comprehending, creating, transforming) text

Text participant
comprehending written, spoken and visual texts

Make meaning by drawing on

  • own experiences and prior knowledge
  • knowledge of similar texts
Text analyst
understanding how texts position readers, viewers and listeners

Is aware and can identify how

  • texts are not ideologically natural or neutral but are crafted to represent the views and interests of the writer
  • information, ideas and language in texts influence reader perceptions
  • texts empower or disempower certain groups

For more information about the Four Roles/Resources Model see Further Readings.