Analysis of Reading Strategies
Analysis of Reading Strategies is an individualised assessment that was developed initially by Ken Goodman. It provides in-depth information about what strategies a reader is using and helps to identify areas that need attention for reading to develop. Max Kemp's work which draws on both Goodman and Marie Clay is perhaps more widely known in Australia.
Reading-with-Understanding Running Record
An alternative to Analysis of Reading Strategies that is widely used with younger readers is the Running Record devised by Marie Clay. An adaption of the Running Record was developed for use with older readers in New Zealand for the SARR (Supporting At-Risk readers) project. Older readers need to be assessed on their ability to read silently as well as their ability to read aloud.
Gaelene Rowe, Helen Lamont, May Daly, Debra Edwards & Sarah Mayor
Cox, authors of Success with Reading & Writing: helping at-risk students
8-13 years, (2000), have kindly given us permission to include information
about a Reading-with-Understanding Running Record from their book. Examples
of completed Reading-with-Understanding Running Record sheets are included
in their book.
Reading and Writing Assessment
A teacher needs to draw from a range of possible assessment tools in order to identify the aspects of reading over which a student is developing control, and those where a student still needs some support. This section outlines some assessment techniques which are useful for varying purposes.
Example one: If a student appears not to understand the text material which they can read aloud fluently, a Reading-With-Understanding Running Record would be a starting place for more information. Then assessing with a TORCH passage or a cloze passage would give further data on the kind of comprehension skills that could be developed in a support program.
Example two: If a student is having difficulty reading the class material it will be necessary to take a Reading-With-Understanding Running Record to identify the cue-sources that are used and the cue-sources that are neglected. It will also become clear in the Running Record what reading strategies the student needs help to develop, and whether or not they are understanding what they are reading.
Reading-With-Understanding Running Record
Readers need to be able to understand written material when they read
it silently. When a teacher begins to help students with their reading,
the first task is to assess how well they get meaning from text they read
silently. It is also important to identify if the material is too difficult.
The Reading-With-Understanding Running Record has become a standard tool
for getting this information.
Consideration should also be given as to how much can be taken in by the student in their first reading of a text. As an adult, retelling a newspaper editorial after a quick read will give you a feeling for what can reasonably be expected after one reading of a passage.
There are a variety of ways that students will retell text. One reader may give a global response: "It is about an expedition to the Chat.” Another may retell the passage in sequence; others may give main ideas; some may give unconnected items from the text.
The teacher's role at this stage is as a receiver of information – the neutral observer. The teacher should not question or engage in dialogue about the passage but simply record what the student says. It is useful to allow students to refer to the passage if they choose to do so.
When the retelling is completed and the points are recorded the student is instructed to read the passage aloud. The teacher then takes a Running Record (refer to Clay, 1993, An Observation Survey for information on how to do this). After the oral reading the teacher may seek clarification of points from the retelling by saying, "Did you find out anymore as you read it aloud?" or "I was not sure what you meant when you said that. Can you help me? "
The information gained about the student's reading and comprehension
from a Reading-With-Understanding Running Record enables a teacher to
find Easy, Instructional and Hard levels of text for each student.
92-96% Accuracy: Instructional
Below 91% Accuracy: Hard
Analysis of the Running Record at the Hard Level will show where the
processes are breaking down and will give information on the use of the
meaning, structure and visual cues.
Retelling is a useful indicator of understanding. Cambourne discusses it as a means of assessment in The Whole Story (1988: 173)
He points out that effective readers' retellings are:
He further points out that less able readers' retellings:
Cambourne (1988) concludes by stating that good readers:
Less-effective readers, as a group, do not have the same focus.
Reading-With-Understanding Running Record Administration Procedure
Analysis: Refer frequently to these notes when learning how to analyse errors.
When analysing a student's reading, teachers might ask themselves
Is the student trying to make sense of what is being read? (semantic cues ... meaning ... M) Does it make sense?
Is knowledge of language patterns being used? (syntactic cues ... structure ... S) Does that sound right?
Is knowledge of letters and their associated sounds being used? (graphophonic cues ... visual … V) Does that look similar?
Are confirmation and self-correction strategies being used?
Download and copy the Reading
With Understanding Running Record
For further information and procedures see:
Clay, M. (3rd Edition 1987). The Early Detection of Reading Difficulties. New Zealand: Heinemann.
Kemp, M. (1987). Watching Children Read & Write. Melbourne: Nelson Australia.
Rowe, G., Lamont, H., Daly, M., Edwards, D. & Mayor Cox, S. (2000). Success with Reading & Writing: helping at-risk students 8-13 years. Victoria: Eleanor Curtain Publishing.
For more details on this text contact:
Eleanor Curtain Publishing