<<MyRead Home List of Guides
THREE STAGES OF READING
Monitoring and Assessment
Engagement: Empowering Teachers with Successful Strategies
The Three Stages Of Reading strategy involves teaching students to delve into text. The Before Reading stage provides a scaffold for new concepts and vocabulary, promotes engagement and provides a means for prediction. The second stage, During Reading, allows students to integrate the knowledge and information they bring to the text with ‘new’ information in the text. The last stage, After Reading, allows students to articulate and process their understanding of what they have read and to think critically about the validity of the text.
Engagement: Engaging Students in Purposeful Social Practices
Four Roles/Resources of the Reader
Based on the Four Roles/Resources of the Reader developed by Freebody and Luke (1990), Three Stages Of Reading involves students in the following repertoire of purposeful social practices:
Four Resources Guideposts
Three Stages of Reading Guideposts are a useful assessment tool.
Implementing the Strategy
Three Stages Of Reading using First Kill
Texts used in the middle years often have language, syntax, vocabulary and concepts specific to a particular area of study. Students need to be taught how to decode, understand, comprehend and analyse a range of texts. Setting students the task of reading a text does not help them to learn how to purposefully use the Four Roles/Resources of the Reader to construct meaning from specialised texts related to particular subject areas.
Teachers need to prepare students and guide them through texts so that they will learn more effectively. The Three Stages Of Reading strategy can be used to scaffold student reading of texts. The strategy can be used with a variety of texts across curriculum areas.
Downloads are in Microsoft Word format.
Download and copy First Kill or select a text relevant for your students and curriculum area.
Download Word Splash
Download Possible Sentence Sheet
Download Data Chart
Before Reading Stage
One of the purposes of Before Reading is to acknowledge the different experiences and background knowledge that students bring to a text, influencing how they will read and learn from a particular text. By knowing what students bring to a text the teacher can provide students with appropriate scaffolds to make links between what is already known and new information presented in a text.
Before Reading also promotes engagement and interest by providing students with a means to predict text content. Before Reading is critical for comprehension to occur. For example, the class may be planning to read First Kill as part of an issues topic or environmental topic. It is important for teachers to articulate to students the purpose for reading particular texts. Two tools that can be during this stage are Word Splash and Possible Sentences.
Word Splash provides a useful framework for eliciting student prior knowledge before reading. Word Splash:
Creating a Word Splash
A rich assortment of predictions will be offered. Some predictions may be challenged. Teachers may ask questions such as, ‘What made you think of...ü?’ The purpose of prompting questions is to encourage students to interact both to share and to extend their understandings of what the text may be about.
Classroom ground rules need to be established for students to participate and offer predictions. For example, students need to be respectful of each other’s predictions, taking care not to embarrass or belittle group members as they read and make associations and predictions based on prior knowledge.
Possible Sentences encourage students to draw on their background experiences and knowledge to construct predictions for a text. It is a tool to help students to process key words in a text before they begin reading. Possible Sentences:
Procedure for Implementing Possible Sentences
During reading encourage students to watch and listen for the words to determine if their Possible Sentences were accurate. Comment on any similarities or differences in meaning or use.
It is important to address inaccurate predictions in ways that don’t belittle wrong answers and encourage future attempts. They can evaluate each Possible Sentence in terms of whether it is true (the text backs up the prediction), false (the text presents a different use of the word), or don’t know (the sentence can be neither proved or disproved based on the text).
During Reading Stage
During this stage of the reading process students need structured means to integrate the knowledge and information they bring to the text with the ‘new or unknown’ within the text. They are processing the text and self-monitoring.
Throughout the During Reading Stage students should have the opportunity to confirm predictions, gather and organise information, and to begin making generalisations about new understandings gained from the text. Two tools that can be during this stage are Data Charts and Self-Monitoring Approach to Reading and Thinking (SMART).
Data Charts are a visual organisational note-taking tool that can be used by individuals, partners or groups of students to take notes. They are an effective way for students to organise information and help students generate meaningful questions on which to focus their reading. Data Charts:
Using Data Charts
After students have done a pre-reading activity related to the text, have them come up with some possible questions to explore from the text. Ask students to choose three or four of the most interesting questions to write on their charts. These will provide a focus for their reading.
Have students record the chosen questions in the boxes along the top. Beneath each focus question students jot down what they think they already know, using the first row. It is important that they make use of their prior knowledge. This process also uncovers any misconceptions about a topic that will be confronted as students read the text.
As students read through the text they make notes under each of the focus questions.
Ask students to summarise information for each focus question, deciding on main idea statements and organising pertinent information.
In the example First Kill, possible focus questions may be:
Students may wish to respond to additional questions that occurred to them, which can be added to the new questions column. For researching a topic extra rows or grid boxes can be added for entering information from a range of sources under focus headings or questions. Sources may include background knowledge, the text, the data chart and other research.
Self Monitoring Approach to Reading and Thinking (SMART)
SMART is a strategy that helps students to think about how their reading is proceeding. It assists students in knowing what sorts of questions they need to ask themselves during the reading of a text to gain meaning. SMART is based on the idea that effective reading starts with recognising what is understood and not understood in a particular text. SMART:
Model the strategy to the students, thinking aloud bits you find confusing. Tell students that there is something you don’t understand. Introduce SMART using the protocols below.
Read a section of the text. Using a pencil, place a tick next to each paragraph that you understand. Place a question mark (?) next to each paragraph that contains something you do not understand.
At the end of each section, stop and explain to yourself, in your own words, what you read. Look back at the text as you go over the material.
Go back to each (?) and see if you can make sense of the paragraph.
Re-read the trouble spot to see if it now makes sense. If it still does not make sense, pinpoint a problem by figuring out why you are having trouble:
5. Try a Fix-Up Strategy
This strategy is adaptable to most subject areas and is effective in cooperative learning groups.
After Reading Stage
During the After Reading stage students articulate and process their understanding of what they have read and think critically about the validity of the text. Two tools that can be during this stage are Paired Reviews and Story Stars.
This strategy provides students with practice in summarising what has been read and learned. Students work with a partner, taking turns in being the ‘talker’ and the ‘listener’, reviewing a text that has been read. Paired Reviews:
Procedure for Paired Reviews
Story Star is a strategy that helps students to build a framework for understanding and remembering a narrative. Story Stars:
After students have read First Kill or a different narrative, give students a blank Story Star like the one below. Have them fill in the key information in dot points.
Students can then report orally or in written form about their understandings gained from the text. They can develop a meaningful summary, linking together key information from the Story Star to demonstrate their knowledge and understanding of the text.
By guiding students through the three stages of Before Reading, During Reading and After Reading, teachers can support student understanding of content and provide them with opportunities to develop their comprehension and vocabulary skills.
Baker, G. & McLoughlin, R. (1994). Writing in the Subject Areas. Melbourne: LLP.
Buehl, D. (2001). Classroom Strategies for Interactive Learning. Delaware. USA: International Reading Association.
Harris, J., Turbill, J., Fitzsimmons, P. & McKenzie, B. (2001). Reading in the Primary School Years. Australia: Social Science Press.
Jennings, C. & Shepherd, J. (1998). Literacy and the Key Learning Areas: Successful Classroom Strategies. Australia: Eleanor Curtain Publishing.
Marshall, A. (2002). First Kill. In C. Martin & T. Howell. (eds.) English Outcomes 3. Pearson Education Australia, 79-80.
Readance, J., Moore, D. & Rickelman, R. (2000). Prereading activities for content area reading and learning (3rd ed). Delaware, USA: International Reading Association.