Monitoring and Assessment
Four Resources Guideposts
Technology Role Cards
Engagement: Empowering Teachers with Successful Strategies
The PowerPointing Narrative strategy is built around the following
Holistically, the strategy involves both students and teachers working
through a series of ICT-meshed steps that culminate in the PowerPresenting
phase of the strategy using PowerPoint. PowerPointing Narrative
is designed so that both teachers and students engage in narrative at
a conventional text level through to an ICT enhanced level.
The strategy focuses on developing understandings of Luke and Freebody’s
Four Roles/Resources of the Reader and critical thinking skills
as espoused by Eric Frangenheim. Through this approach students always
use some aspect of technology to explore the ideas of text and its contextual
positioning as well as the writer’s craft.
Engagement: Engaging Students in Purposeful Social Practices
The Wife’s Story by Ursula Le Guin
and texts about wolves and superstition
- integrates the Four Roles/Resources of the Reader
- provides an incremental paradigm to apply to a growing awareness
of how to mesh technology with narrative
- can be applied to any text type: exposition, narrative, poetry
- incorporates all levels of Bloom’s taxonomy
- utilises concepts related to e-intelligence and skills
- scaffolds a greater understanding of purpose, audience and
- promotes critical thinking skills through a Y-Chart analysis
- involves students in multiliterate behaviours as they merge
traditional and e-texts
- builds on students’ prior knowledge of PowerPoint
- discourages ‘PowerPointlessness’ through the use
of Technology Role Cards
- is a story that challenges understandings of narration
- uses conventional short story structures as well as language
that tricks the reader
- presents the concept of the unreliable narrator
- connects with other stories of the macabre and unexpected
- connects with popular myths and legends to do with human interaction
with wolves and other animals
- is atmospheric as well as anthropomorphic in its storytelling
Four Roles/Resources of the Reader
Based on the Four Roles/Resources of the Reader
developed by Freebody and Luke (1990), PowerPointing Narrative
involves students in the following repertoire of purposeful social practices:
Decoding the codes and conventions of written,
spoken and visual texts, eg:
- decodes the conventions of written and multimedia texts
- interprets literal and symbolic images of shapes, objects,
setting, colour and sound
- interprets the codes of the internet and the language of search
Understanding the purposes of different
written, spoken and visual texts for different cultural and social
- interacts with others around a text by sharing and prioritising
ideas about wolves
- identifies the features of the narrative and transforms them
into PowerPoint and Readers Theatre presentations
- applies own images and sounds to selected texts to create a
new PowerPoint text
- understands the multimodal nature of texts by transforming
conventional print texts into e-texts
Comprehending written, spoken and visual
- integrates own knowledge about wolves with new knowledge gained
from texts about wolves
- refers to own repertoire of images, symbols and sounds associated
with wolves and their interaction with humans
- uses/finds images and sounds to enhance own understanding of
wolves and their interaction with humans
- identifies links with other stories or knowledge of wolves
and the unexpected
Understanding how texts position readers,
viewers and listeners, eg:
- challenges common perceptions of humans/wolves interactions
- examines fact and opinion in a variety of texts, eg myths,
legends, information texts and e-texts
- explores the effectiveness of traditional storytelling as opposed
- asks questions about the nature of a text and its positioning
of the reader
- questions the validity and reliability of internet sites, eg
uses a SWOT analysis
Four Resources Guideposts
Narrative Guideposts provide a useful assessment tool.
Implementing the Strategy
PowerPointing Narrative using The Wife's Tale
PowerPreparation is structured around two guiding strategies,
a Round Robin and Tournament Prioritising. These two strategies are designed
so that students pull together as much collective knowledge as possible
and then, through a process of consensual discussion, arrive at the most
valid points relating to the topic. They also help you to ascertain what
your students know about wolves.
Noisy Round Robin
- Arrange students in groups of four. These groups may be maintained
throughout the whole PowerPointing Narrative strategy or changed to
promote more interactions with a variety of students.
- Ask students to brainstorm everything they know about wolves and
the stories, fairy tales, myths and superstitions associated with
them. Allow three minutes to do this.
- Once the time is up, students should hand their sheet on to the
- When students receive the next sheet of paper they continue adding
to the list. They should not repeat information that they included
on their original sheet.
- Repeat steps 2 to 4. Determine the number of rotations based on
student engagement and the flow of ideas. Three or four rotations
might be enough in a class of 30.
- When the students receive their original sheet give them a few minutes
to look over what has been recorded on the sheet.
- Students then rank the information in terms of importance and justify
why they are ranked in this way.
At this point distribute texts on human interactions with animals, wolves,
and superstition. Download Howls of Horror, or
stories about feral children and wolves at http://www.occultopedia.com/index1.htm.
There you will be able to find stories about the Wild Boy of Aveyron,
John Ssabunnya and Amala and Kamala. Refer to texts such as The
Jungle Book by Rudyard Kipling which is available in the public domain
at the Project Gutenberg site.
As you read the texts with your students, ask groups to add any new,
relevant information to their lists. This will allow them to increase
their knowledge bank. They may also wish to change their rankings.
Students work with the results of their noisy round robin and plot the
points on the Tournament Prioritising sheet.
- Create a context, such as ‘What would we tell someone to describe
what our class understood about wolves?’
- Give each group a Tournament Prioritising sheet. The item seeded
at the top of the round robin page must be seeded at No 1, the second
item at No 24, the third item at No 2, the fourth at No 23, the fifth
at No 3 and so on.
- In the same groups, decide on which items will be eliminated, and
advance each ‘winner’ to the next round and continue until each group
can rank their items. Encourage students to make active decisions
about why to keep one item and eliminate another. At some stage it
would be valuable to stop your students and ask them to explain the
process of elimination and justify their decisions.
- At the end of the activity lead a discussion about why the ‘winners’
should form the basis of the class understanding.
PowerBuilding for the Narrative
At the PowerBuilding stage students gather important information
to consolidate their knowledge of wolves in literature. Strategies also
include critical thinking skills.
Before you begin this stage of the strategy allow time for your students
to synthesise what they have learnt so far. To do this you could use a
Direct students to decide on a topic, something like, what are wolves
really like? From here your students will need to work only on the first
two columns as throughout the strategy you are collecting knowledge and
understandings that will allow them to complete the third column.
What are wolves really like?
| What I know
|What I want to know
|What I learned
- Provide students with a variety of texts that present ideas about
humankind’s interaction with wolves so that they may gather more background
information. There are a number of texts available such as George Bruce’s
Natuk in Watermelon Moon and myths such as those relating to
The Legend of Romulus and Remus; also anthropological
stories of Kamala
and Amala (type in feral children and the select Kamala and Amala),
reared by wolves in India.
- There is a variety of sites about wolves on the Internet. As students
explore these sites they should identify key words such as wolves and
myths and legends to narrow the search. Sites such as www.wolfcountry.net/information/WolfMyth.shtml
have a variety of literary texts related to wolves.
- In using the Internet, teach students how to effectively use meta-search
engines such as Dogpile
and clustering search engines such as Vivisimo.
In PowerBuilding for the Narrative, students need to make discerning
decisions about the reliability and validity of sites. A SWOT
(Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) Analysis would
be an optional but valuable tool here.
- As students continue through the strategy, they may record their understandings
in a sound and image journal. In fact, there are opportunities to include
images in the What I know column and work from there to complete
the two remaining columns.
- The sound and image journal may be a paper-based journal or an electronic
one. A sound and image journal is a record of sounds and images which
are linked to the topic or text being studied. Students may add print
text to justify the inclusion of particular sounds and images. An electronic
journal may also enable the students to capture the actual sounds and
images rather than just describing them.
- The journal is nourished by using, eg the Y-Chart and the Internet,
to locate more information about wolves and humans. Critical thinking
strategies such as the Y-Chart analysis
will support students to sort through their own understandings of the
topic as they explore more texts.
PowerFraming the Narrative
PowerFraming assumes that both students and teachers have at
least an intermediate understanding of using PowerPoint.
- Provide students with the opportunity to refresh themselves with the
uses of PowerPoint. Perhaps three lessons on using the features of PowerPoint,
such as slide construction, importing images, changing backgrounds and
animation, would be valuable as these are the essential features of
- Download the PowerPoint version of The Legend
of Romulus and Remus. Ask students to print this out, preferably
three slides to a page so that they will be able to annotate each slide.
Working in their groups, ask students what additional images and sounds
would best accompany the given parts of the story. Questions such as
‘What background noise would we need to hear?’ and ‘What
other images can we add to this to assist in our reading?’ might
be helpful in directing students as they write their ideas on the lines
- Once students have successfully achieved the Romulus and Remus task,
provide them with a copy of The Wife’s Story. After reading
the text, spend some time deconstructing the short story according to
The Four Roles/Resources of the Reader. Students should work
in groups of four, using the Learning
Role Cards to scaffold their questioning
of the text.
- Students now proceed to applying sounds and images to The Wife’s
Story. Start by drawing six boxes (slides in PowerPoint like the
one above) and underneath each slide write a line from a key part of
the story. Ask the students to consider the ways in which we as readers
are asked to visualise the text: discuss the use of sound clips, graphics/images
relevant to the story, how we could animate the slide and why it should
be done in that way. Record ideas in the boxes.
PowerPointing the Narrative
PowerPointing involves the students transferring their knowledge
and understandings to PowerPoint and Readers Theatre.
- Ask students to choose one of the texts already explored, eg The
Wife’s Story or The Jungle Book, Natuk, The
Legend of Romulus and Remus or Amala and Kamala. Students
should work in groups of four (pairs would be acceptable too) so that
a majority of the work can be shared.
- In their groups students identify four excerpts (4-6
lines) from their selected text which they feel are important in the
- Students then illustrate these excerpts by constructing four
slides which are a mosaic of images and sounds that illustrates their
understanding of the text. The selected excerpts should complement the
image and sound presentation and vice versa.
- The knowledge and information that students have collected in their
sound and image journals and in their annotations of the slides of The
Legend of Romulus and Remus and The Wife’s Story may be
- Extension/Enrichment Task
Rather than focus on the narrative to determine the four slides, the
selected four slides must demonstrate each of the Four Roles/Resources
of the Reader. In this way students show the ways they have broken,
used, participated in and analysed the text.
Students can be directed to specific tasks related to the construction
of the PowerPoint slide presentation. Tasks include image and sound retrieval,
slide construction and animation, decision making and refining of the
presentation. There may be some adept users of PowerPoint who can lead
and support other group members.
Students need opportunities to use the Internet to locate appropriate
images and sounds to use in their presentations. This would most likely
take a number of lessons. Time can be saved by the teacher downloading
or caching sites that are appropriate. Students would be expected to use
a range of search engines.
PowerPresenting the Narrative
In PowerPresenting the Narrative students read excerpts from
The Wife’s Story or from their selected text as a Readers Theatre
presentation, with the slide show happening in the background.
It is important to model possible approaches that can be taken. Below
is an example of how one group of students devised their own macabre/mystery
story using images and sounds and presenting it as a Readers Theatre presentation.
Yellow spoken by Speaker
Blue spoken by Speaker 2
Green spoken by Speaker 3
Red spoken by Speaker 4
Pink are sounds from the Internet
Grey means that all say it
* means insert the next slide
The man walks down the stairs with precise steps
(step 1, 2, 3). Opening the door the stranger
turned around. Creak of door opening. èTell
them I came. That I kept my word.î Then, just as mysteriously
as he appeared, he disappeared into the night.
The clouds hiding his departure. *
The excerpt from The Snatcher, written by students, shows how
to mesh image with narrative. The script underneath the slide is synchronised
with the presentation. Sound effects add to the presentation. Where students
are unable to locate appropriate electronic sounds, they may create them
with their own voices.
After a rehearsal so that timing and image are synchronised, students
present the show to the class. Ensure all students are involved in the
Readers Theatre presentation.
Evaluation and Reflection
Use the Technology Role Cards so that students
evaluate their work and reflect on their learning.
Howls of Horror
[Acrobat PDF: 3.68MB]
The Legend of Romulus and
The Legend of Romulus
and Remus, Illustrated by Lauren Parris [PowerPoint presentation, 288KB]
Technology Role Cards
[Microsoft Word Document, 24KB]
Bruce, G. ‘Natuk’ in Woodhouse, C. (ed.). (1990). Watermelon
Moon and Other Stories. Sydney: Longman.
Frangenheim, Eric. (2002). Reflections on classroom thinking strategies:
36 practical strategies to encourage thinking in your classroom.
QLD: Rodin Educational Publishing.
Kipling, R. (1987). The Jungle Book. London: Penguin.
Also available in the public domain at www.cs.cmu.edu/People/rgs/jngl-table.html
Le Guin, U. ‘The Wife’s Story’ in The Compass Rose.
(1982). Underwood-Miller (1982), Harper & Row (1982) and Bantam (1983).
Le Guin, U. ‘The Wife’s Story’ in Woodhouse, C. (ed.).
(1990 ). Watermelon Moon and Other Stories. Sydney: Longman.
Stories about feral children and wolves at http://www.occultopedia.com/index1.htm
The Legend of Romulus and Remus at http://museums.ncl.ac.uk/reticulum/NORTHERNFRONTIER/