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COOPERATIVE READING AS SIMPLE AS ABC

Glenda Raison

Monitoring and Assessment

Four Resources Guideposts

Classroom Organisation

Think Pair Share

Role Sheets

Reading Roster

Cooperative Learning Strategies

Engagement: Empowering Teachers with Successful Strategies

Cooperative Reading As Simple As ABC brings together strategies that enable students to set and reach their personal goals, Autonomy, and promote a cooperative learning community, Belongingness. Reading practices are explicitly taught and students have many opportunities to use their reading strategies, Competence.

In any given classroom, some students are keen to read. They focus on reading and are not easily distracted. These engaged readers talk about what they read with their friends and their love of reading leads them to valued learning outcomes. On the other hand, some students avoid reading. They rarely choose to read, are easily distracted and are uninvolved and inactive.

It is reasonable to assume that reading engagement and successful reading are linked and research supports this view, so Cooperative Reading As Simple As ABC, focuses on specific processes that facilitate reading engagement and motivation to read. The strategy which draws on sociocultural, motivational and metacognitive areas of research has been trialled in a number of year 4-7 primary classrooms and in early high school classes.

The theory behind any instructional strategy informs and shapes its development and although they may use different terminology, researchers agree that engaged readers are motivated to make choices about what they read, how they read and what they take from the reading. For example, students who are intrinsically motivated to read and believe they are effective readers become better readers because they are willing to grapple with difficult texts and integrate the text with their prior knowledge. On the other hand, if texts are not fulfilling their personal purposes or goals, readers will not continue the activity of reading. It appears that excellent active readers combine intrinsic motivation with cognitive and language processes in reading (Guthrie & Wigfield, 2000).

For Cooperative Reading the body of research concerned with the importance of engagement and intrinsic motivation in the development of effective readers was examined (Cambourne 1995; Deci & Ryan, 1992; Turner 1995; Au, 1997). The research indicates that intrinsic motivation is essential to reading engagement and engagement in learning to read involves having a clear purpose, taking responsibility for learning and seeing oneself as a potential reader.

Guthrie, McGough, Bennett and Rice (1996) outlined a number of characteristics of engaged readers saying that they:

  • were motivated to read by personal goals
  • used a range of effective reading strategies to understand what they read
  • were knowledgeable in the way they built new understanding from text
  • were socially interactive in their approach to literacy

Deci and Ryan (1991, 1985) and Deci, Vallerand, Pelletier, and Ryan (1991) describe intrinsic motivation as the choice of behaviour that will satisfy the universal need for autonomy, belongingness and competence. In a learning environment where these needs are accommodated, students will be intrinsically motivated to learn what they need to learn (Dalton & Watson, 1997). In other words, when students are intrinsically motivated, they want to learn and they learn what they need to learn. They engage. A range of old and new reading and learning strategies and activities are drawn together and shaped as Cooperative Reading As Simple As ABC.

Teachers may find familiarisation with Guided Reading a useful introduction to Cooperative Reading. In Guided Reading the teacher leads the questioning of texts. In Cooperative Reading the students are empowered to ask their own questions of texts using the framework of the Four Roles/Resources of the Reader to scaffold their questioning.

Engagement: Engaging Students in Purposeful Social Practices

Strategy

Cooperative Reading

Text

Exciting and interesting novels, poems or short stories

Autonomy

  • students choose from a range of trade books
  • students record, monitor and assess team social goals and personal reading goals

Belongingness

  • teachers explicitly teach social skills necessary for partner and group discussions and cooperative learning
  • students work in teams and engage in team building activities
  • students work in teams where they are individually accountable and interdependent
  • students interact around a text
  • students reflect on their use of social skills
  • discussions link reading to the students’ personal experiences

Competence

  • uses teacher read aloud with pauses from time to time to model explicitly what readers do as they read
  • students read silently and if necessary use peer support to scaffold reading of difficult texts
  • students integrate the Four Roles/Resources of the Reader by engaging in team discussion around the text they are reading
  • likely to interest students, are worth reading and challenge students’ current understandings
  • explore real world issues linked to other learning areas
  • contain rich language
  • reflect and connect to their personal experiences and lives
  • may link to author study or focus on a text type

Four Roles/Resources of the Reader

Based on the Four Roles/Resources of the Reader developed by Freebody and Luke (1990), Cooperative Reading involves students in the following repertoire of purposeful social practices:

Code breaker (Code breaker)

Decoding the codes and conventions of written, spoken and visual texts, eg:

  • uses a range of word identification strategies to identify unfamiliar words, eg say a word that would make sense and keep reading, integrate knowledge of context, meaning and grammar to confirm or reject attempts to identify unfamiliar words
  • discusses various literary devices such as similes and metaphors
  • explores common letter patterns
  • focuses on the function and use of various categories of words, eg base words, parts of speech, homophones, homonyms, synonyms, antonyms, prefixes

Text user (Illustrator)

Understanding the purposes of different written, spoken and visual texts for different cultural and social functions, eg:

  • discusses different types of texts and the purposes for which they are used
  • interacts with others around a text by sharing and justifying personal responses
  • uses texts for enjoyment and to find information
  • chooses and uses texts within a community of literacy users to fulfil own goals
  • chooses and adjusts reading strategies to suit own purposes as well as the type of text they are reading

Text participant (Discussion manager)

Comprehending written, spoken and visual texts, eg:

  • asks ‘fat’ and ‘skinny’ questions
  • explains the difference between ‘fat’ and ‘skinny’ questions
  • visualises events and characters
  • understands literal meaning in texts
  • infers and substantiates information from texts
  • understands different layers of meaning in a text
  • links new ideas from texts with own knowledge and experiences
  • uses knowledge of text structure to construct meaning
  • connects parts of the text, eg links cause and effect or problem and solution
  • describes how text structure contributes to the meaning of a text
  • reads purposefully
  • uses and interprets illustrations, maps, diagrams, tables and graphs to construct meaning

Text analyst (Investigator)

Understanding how texts position readers, viewers and listeners, eg:

  • recognises that texts are written by authors who have a point of view
  • identifies, questions and clarifies the author’s point of view
  • explains and justifies why people interpret texts differently
  • compares and contrasts texts on the same topic written from different viewpoints
  • identifies bias in a text
  • identifies character stereotypes
  • identifies words that portray stereotypes
  • discusses thoughts on the information presented in a text
  • constructs an alternative position to the one taken in the text

Four Resources Guideposts

Cooperative Reading Guideposts provide a useful assessment tool.

Implementing the Strategy

The Cooperative Reading Cycle

The Cooperative Reading lesson sequence is based on a four-week cycle. The students stay in their teams throughout a cycle to finish reading their book. However, because students are learning new roles and routines the first cycle may take five weeks or more.

During a cycle the students:

  • listen to the teacher reading aloud and then discuss the book with a partner
  • set individual reading goals and team social goals
  • prepare a team reading plan or roster
  • read, discuss and respond to the team text using different roles
  • monitor the team’s progress and their own goals
  • present evidence of their learning to the whole class

The following overview describes how to get started.

Get organised – Week 1

Teachers begin by encouraging students to talk about why working together can be helpful. Consider activities such as class meetings, community circles, and any activities that encourage Cooperative Learning, eg Think, Pair Share, Effective Listening, T charts and Y charts for social skills.

Students need to work in teams of four or five so they get to know their team members by participating in trust building activities to promote effective collaboration. Each team could choose a name that represents them, design a logo or banner and begin to work out what makes an effective learning team.

Journals

Each student requires a reading journal containing a copy of the Role Sheets.

Teacher reads aloud and students ‘think pair share’.

In the first week teachers read aloud each day and model and teach the skills, roles and routines for Cooperative Reading. The focus is on explicitly teaching students:

  • goal setting and self assessment techniques
  • collaborative learning processes
  • how to use reading journals to record their reading and their group’s progress and processes
  • a selection of skills needed to perform the four roles they will play as readers and in discussion groups in future sessions

To develop some of the repertoire of strategies for reading and discussion, teachers stop reading from time to time and invite students to turn to a partner and ‘think, pair share’ about an aspect of the text. This modelling and explicit teaching is ongoing throughout the Cooperative Reading cycle.

Role Sheets

The four reading and discussion roles teachers model are derived from Freebody and Luke’s (1990) Four Roles/Resources model. The roles are introduced and explicitly taught throughout the cycle to help build students’ repertoire of strategies in each role.

Four Roles/Resources of the Reader
Cooperative Reading Roles
Code Breaker Code Breaker
Text Participant Discussion Manager
Text User Illustrator
Text Analyst Investigator

Week 2 and 3

Teachers continue to read aloud as before. They model responses to reading and explicitly teach reading strategies, eg:

  • strategies they use as they read
  • discussion techniques
  • specific collaborative learning processes
  • group reflection and self-evaluation techniques

Using short texts to start, the students move into their teams, set team social goals, read (silently), prepare their discussion roles and then discuss their texts and review their progress. Each day team members take on a reading role using the Role Sheets to guide their reading task and stick-on notes to prepare for team discussions. At first, it is best to have all students work on one role in each session but in the following week they can take on different roles.

While the teams are reading and discussing their texts teachers pay attention to the needs of underperforming readers by supporting students who may need help devising questions to write on the sticky notes.

At the end of each session, the students also spend time reflecting on their group processes as well as their individual reading performances. Their responses may be recorded in their journals.

Week 4

Continue to read aloud and model ‘after reading’ strategies in Reading Tactics. Students have the opportunity to share their responses to the text.

The second cycle

After the students complete their texts a new cycle begins with new teams and new texts. Teachers gradually add to the students’ repertoire of reading and social skills. However, some teachers find it beneficial if readers stay in the same teams for more than one cycle.

Generally, students choose a novel and form a new team with others who have chosen the same book. They participate in team building activities and prepare their reading and discussion roster. They then participate in daily Cooperative Reading sessions.

A Typical Cooperative Reading Session

Teacher read aloud and student discussion

(Approximately 20 minutes)

In this segment of Cooperative Reading, teachers undertake two major roles. The first is to manage and mediate the induction of students into ways of discussing texts and using language and other symbolic responses.

The second is to demonstrate effective reading practices. Choose read-aloud stories that you think the students will enjoy and do not spoil the stories by including too many pauses for instruction!

To begin the session, select a book that is likely to appeal to students and read it aloud. After reading part of the text, initiate discussions by asking open-ended questions about the story so far. Invite the students to share their prior knowledge, predict future events or to think about the topic.

The students use the Think, Pair, Share cognitive rehearsal strategy (Kagan, 1994) to discuss their responses to your questions. Partner discussions about the story give the students immediate opportunities to respond and this helps to identify them as part of the class community of readers. Practising with a partner helps the students prepare for future discussions in their teams.

The teacher’s second role during the read aloud segment is to provide authentic demonstrations of what competent readers know and can do before, during, and after reading, and to model your effective reading strategies (see Reading Tactics). To do this, as you read, occasionally ‘think aloud’ and name practices that proficient readers use.

Plan to introduce students to the repertoire of reading practices used by code breakers, text participants, text analysts and text users (Freebody & Luke, 1990). In other words, you demonstrate reading practices in context. Ultimately, you select the appropriate content based on your students’ needs.

Goal setting, reading and discussion groups with focused intervention

(35 minutes)

Students are more likely to be able to assess their own progress if they are aware of the criteria against which good readers are judged. They also learn to set realistic personal goals. There is a focus on social goals as well as reading goals using Reading Tactics. Possible goals can be recorded on class charts or on pages that can be placed into reading journals to be used as reminders of what students are working towards.

After setting their goals, the teams prepare a Reading Roster read and discuss their texts. The reading and discussion roles in Cooperative Reading are derived from the Freebody and Luke (1990) Four Roles/Resources of the Reader and there are Role Sheets to guide the students.

To participate effectively in discussions, students sometimes require specific guidelines so Role Sheets can be used. Ideally, the roles remain until the students can engage in effective discussion without referring to them. However, in the classes which trialed this strategy the teachers felt that the Role Sheets provided excellent scaffolding and they were retained for the students’ reference throughout the trial.

While the students are reading and preparing for discussion, teachers help individuals or small groups. They focus on individual or small group reading instruction, providing explicit teaching where necessary. It is essential that underperforming readers are supported at this time. Peers may also provide support.

This part of the session was included to emphasise active inquiry and engagement in reading through real world discussions. These interactions link the reading to the personal experiences of the readers. The interactions are enjoyable, and interesting for the students and often provide motivation for reading and learning (Brophy, 1998; Guthrie & Wigfield, 2000).

Team and whole-class reflection

(5-10 minutes)

The purpose of this segment of Cooperative Reading is to provide closure for the lesson and to enable students to learn the processes and language of self-assessment from others in the classroom. The students in teams, review their reading and social goals and complete their personal reflections. These can be written reflections or oral discussions. To end the lesson the teacher facilitates a brief sharing and review session where students see and hear aspects of other teams’ activities.

By providing opportunities for students to think about what they have been doing, teachers encourage students to take responsibility for their learning and to reflect on their progress towards the goals they set. Having students thinking about themselves as readers and team members contributes to the self-assessment process.

In this part of the lesson you provide clear instructions about how to reflect on and monitor progress towards personal reading goals and team social goals. There should be opportunities for students to:

  • individually reflect on and review their reading goal
  • collectively reflect on and review their team’s social goals
  • share some of their reflections with others in the class

Students’ reflections contribute to your knowledge of the student as well as their knowledge of themselves. Sentence stems may scaffold the reflection.

Resources

Teachers often work in teams or with a ‘buddy’ teacher to introduce Cooperative Reading. This provides opportunities for them to collaborate and to share resources. Working in this way generally results in optimal learning for the adults as well as the students.

Texts

Classes will need to have access to a variety of fiction titles. The books should be interesting to the students and preferably chosen by them. In the first instance, a whole class set of one novel can be used to teach the routines. However, after the first cycle it is essential to have at least 4-6 copies of each title available. After that the books may be linked to a theme such as an author study or a text type, eg folk tales, fables, science fiction, Australian stories or after dark stories, but this is not essential.

Journals

Each student requires a journal. This will be used to record:

  • the students’ knowledge and understanding about reading strategies and the reading process
  • information about, and reflections on, the texts read by students
  • student self assessments and peer assessments
  • reviews of group work skills and processes including reflections on the social skills used in group work

Stick-ons/Sticky Notes

These are optional and can be used by students to make notes as they read. They have been very successful in motivating students to record their thoughts.

Reading Rosters, Role Sheets and Reading Tactics

You will also need to provide copies of Reading Rosters, Role Sheets (if you wish to start with these) and Reading Tactics (eg before, during and after reading) for students. The Reading Tactics provide ideas for students’ goal setting (in week one of each cycle students select goals for reading as well as team social goals). They highlight their goal. The lists probably work best if they are jointly constructed with the students. So, in future cycles the focus is on encouraging students to think about effective reading tactics and set their own goals, then work towards fulfilling the goals, continually monitoring their own progress and evaluating their performance.

Click here to download a copy of the Reading Rosters, Role Sheets and Reading Tactics in Microsoft Word format (62KB).


READING ROSTER

Who does what and when do we do it?

Our team name is:

We all agree to read these pages so that we are ready for our group discussion:

Day 1
pages/chapters

 

 

Day 2
pages/chapters

 

 

Day 3
pages/chapters

 

 

Day 4
pages/chapters

 

 

Day 5
pages/chapters

 

 

Day 6
pages/chapters

 

 

Day 7
pages/chapters

 

 

Day 8
pages/chapters

 

 

 

We all agree to prepare our roles:

Day
Discussion Manager
Code Breaker
Illustrator
Investigator
1
       
2
       
3
       
4
       
5
       
6
       
7
       
8
       

 

Signed and agreed:

 


 

 


 


 

 


ROLE SHEETS

Discussion Manager

Tips for Discussion Managers (Text participants)

Ask mostly ‘fat questions’. Here are some possible questions:

  • What do you think about… happening?
  • Describe what (character or setting) looks like?
  • How did you feel as you read this part?
  • Why do you think…?
  • Do you know anyone like…?
  • Has this ever happened to you?

Discussion Manager’s Task

  • Your task is to get your team talking about the book you are reading.
  • You need to think of questions to discuss at your team meeting.
  • Write the questions on your sticky notes.
  • In discussion time encourage your team members to talk about their reading and share their feelings.

Code Breaker

Tips for Code Breakers

To be a great code breaker you could talk about some good reading tactics you used today. You could look for words or groups of words that:

  • are puzzling
  • help you see pictures in your head
  • remind you of something or someone you know
  • are tricky to pronounce
  • have unusual spelling
  • have the same sound or letter pattern
  • have the same base word/prefix
  • mean the same (synonyms)
  • have the same number of syllables or sounds

Code Breaker’s Task

  • You talk about how you worked out tricky words.
  • You find interesting words and write them.
  • Discuss the words with your group.
  • You might write down the page numbers so your team members can help you work out the words that you are not sure of.

Investigator

Tips for Investigators (Text Analysts)

  • You might ask your teammates if the story is like, or not like, real life.
  • Is the story fair?
  • You might ask what the story would be like if the main character was a boy not a girl or vice versa.
  • Talk about why the author wrote this text. What is the author’s point of view?
  • You might find examples of stereotypes or bias. Try to find the words the author uses to convince you.
  • You could ask how the story might be different from another point of view.
  • Talk about what the author wants you to believe about the characters.

Investigator’s Task

  • You try and ‘get inside the author’s head’ to find out why parts of the story are included.
  • You find out why not everyone agrees about a story.
  • You are always wondering why parts of the story are included.
  • You think about why the author chose particular words or phrases.
  • You help your team notice the most interesting or exciting or puzzling parts of the reading.
  • Write down your questions or ideas. Note the page number and write why you chose the parts.

Illustrators

Tips for Illustrators (Text Users)

  • As a great illustrator you draw something about the story or how you feel about what has happened so far.
  • You might draw a character, a place, a problem, a prediction about the story or something the story reminds you of. Use labels if you want to.
  • You may want to draw something that the text reminds you of in your life or in the life of someone you know.

Illustrator’s Task

  • Draw any picture you like about your reading today.
  • When it is your turn, show the team your drawing and ask each person to talk about it.
  • After everyone has had a say, you tell the team what your picture means and why your drew it.

READING TACTICS

Choose your BEFORE reading goals

Highlight one item for your reading goal and write the date you start to work towards it.

Things I can do to help me choose the right book

   Read the title and look at the cover of the book.
   Read the blurb to see if the book interests me.
   Check the author’s name to see if I know the author’s work.
   Flick through the book and check the chapter headings.
   Look at illustrations, speech bubbles, conversations or other features.
   Guess what the story might be about.
   Start thinking about what the characters or places in the story might be like.

Everyday before I read

   Quickly skim the pages I read last time, to remind me what has happened so far.
   Think about and predict (or guess) what might happen next.
   Think what the characters might do.
   Picture the places and the characters in the story.
   Think what questions I want answered.
   Decide what I will do while I am reading.

 

Choose your DURING reading goals

For Discussion Managers, Investigators and Illustrators

Highlight one item for your reading goal and write the date you start to work towards it.

Setting

   Imagine/draw/talk about the places in the story.
   Picture the places in different parts of the story.
   Try to work out why the author chose the setting.

Plot or story

   Make ‘a video in my head’ as I read.
   Remember what has happened so far.
   Look for dialogue (talk) that tells about the actions in the story.
   Try to work out why the author made particular things happen.
   Answer the questions I thought of before I started reading.
   Think about how the story is like or not like my life.
   Think about why the author chooses to tell, or not tell, some details.
   Think about different interpretations of the text.

Characters

   Picture what the people in the story look like.
   Imagine how characters feel.
   Imagine what I would do.
   Think about the people I know who are like the characters in the story.
   Explain what I think of a character and find supporting evidence in the text.
   Think about the characters and guess how they might react.
   Find dialogue (talk) that tells me more about the characters in the story.
   Try to work out why the author made the character behave in certain ways.
   Look for stereotypes in the story.

Author’s style

   Look for great phrases, sentences or words.
   Find techniques the author uses to build up excitement, humour or suspense.
   Talk about metaphors and similes and other literary devices.

 

Choose your DURING reading goals

For Code Breakers
Code Breakers always check their understanding

Highlight one item for your reading goal and write the date you start to work towards it.

While I am reading:

   Check that I understand what I read.
   Make little summaries or pictures in my head.
   Look for answers to my questions.
   Stop reading at an exciting part and predict what might happen next; I read on
       to check or change my prediction.
   Check the picture or diagram if there is one.

If my reading does not make sense:

   Think about what I already know and see if that helps me work out the meaning.
   Go back to where I can make sense of the reading and make a picture in my mind,
       then read on slowly and predict what could happen next (sometimes reading
       aloud helps here).
   Use some of my tricky words techniques like:

  • say a word that would make sense and keep reading
  • leave out the word and keep reading
  • reread the sentence and then keep reading
  • look for a little word in the big one
  • look at the first part of the word and guess
  • cover the prefix or suffix and see if I can work out the rest of the word
  • check the pictures or diagrams
  • sound out the word
  • ask a friend to help

As a great code breaker I am learning about English letter patterns

   I notice words that have the same letter clusters but make different sounds, eg
        ‘ou’ in would, count, dough, through, enough.
   I find words that have the same sounds.
   I find words with the same meaning base.
   I find words that have the same prefix.
   I find words with the same suffix.

 

Choose your AFTER reading goals

Highlight one item for your reading goal and write the date you start to work towards it.

When I finish reading:

   Think if there are any similar stories I’ve read.
   Compare characters from different stories to the characters in this story or movie.
   Discuss how the story is like my life.
   Think about the story from a different point of view.
   Identify the author’s message and explain my opinions.
   Discuss the writing techniques used by the author (imagery, humour, word selection).
   Go back to the parts that I enjoyed and tell why I liked them.


References and Further Reading

Au, K. (1997). A sociocultural model of reading instruction: the Kamehameha Elementary Education Program. In S. A. Stahl. & D. A. Hayes (eds.), Instructional models in reading. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc Publishers, 181-220.

Bellanca, J. & Fogarty, R. (1994). Blueprints for thinking in the cooperative classroom. Melbourne: Hawker Brownlow Education.

Bennett, B., Rolheiser-Bennett, C. & Stevahn, L. (1991). Cooperative learning: Where heart meets mind. Toronto: Educational Connections.

Brand-Gruwel, S., Aarnoutse, C.A.J. & Van Den Bos, K.P. (1998). Improving text comprehension strategies in reading and listening settings. Learning and Instruction, 8(1), 63-81.

Brophy, J. (1998). Motivating students to learn. Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Cambourne, B. (1995). Towards an educationally relevant theory of literacy learning: Twenty years of inquiry. The Reading Teacher, 49, 182-192.

Curriculum Council, (1998). Curriculum Framework. Perth: Curriculum Council.

Dalton, J. & Watson, M. (1997). Among Friends. Armidale: Eleanor Curtain.

Daniels, H. (1994). Literature Circles: voice and choice in the student-centred classroom. Maine: Stenhouse Publishers.

Deci, E. & Ryan, R. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum.

Deci, E., Vallerand, R.J., Pelletier, L. & Ryan, R.M. et al. (1991). Motivation and Education: The self-determination perspective. Educational Psychologist, 26(3 & 4), 325-346.

Deci, E. & Flaste, R. (1991). Why we do what we do: The dynamic of personal autonomy. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons.

Deci, E. & Ryan, R.M. (1991). A motivational approach to self: Integration in personality. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: Perspectives on Motivation. R.Dienstbier. Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 38.

Deci, E. & Ryan, R.M. (1992). The initiation and regulation of intrinsically motivated learning and achievement. In A.K. Boggiano and T.S. Pittman (eds.), Achievement and motivation: A social developmental perspective. Toronto: Cambridge University Press, 3-36.

Freebody, P. & Luke, A. (1990). Literacies programmes: Debates and demands in cultural context. Prospect: A Journal of Australian TESOL, 11, 7-16.

Gaskins, I. W. (1998). There's more to teaching at-risk readers than good reading instruction. The Reading Teacher, 51(7), 534-547.

Guthrie, J. T., McGough, K., Bennett & Rice. (1996). Concept-oriented reading instruction: An integrated curriculum to develop motivations and strategies for reading. In L. Baker, P. Afflerbach & Reinking, D. (eds.), Developing engaged readers in school and home communities. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 165-190.

Guthrie, J. T. & Wigfield, A. (2000). Engagement and motivation in reading. In M. l. Kamil, P. B.Mosenthal, P. D. Pearson & R. Barr. (eds.), Handbook of Reading Research. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 403-422.

Harste, J., Short, K., & Burke, C. (1988). Creating Classrooms for Authors: The Reading-Writing Connection. Portsmouth: Heinemann.

Johnson, D. & Johnson, R. (1983). The socialization and achievement crisis: Are cooperative learning experiences the solution. In L.Bickman (ed.). Applied Social Psychology Annual. Beverley Hills: Sage, 4, 146.

Johnson, D., Johnson, R. et al. (1981). Effects of Cooperative, Competitive and Individualistic Goal Structures on Achievement: A Meta-Analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 89, 47-62.

Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Stanne, M. B. (2000). Cooperative Learning Methods: A Meta-Analysis. http://www.clcrc.com/pages/cl-methods.html. Retrieved 15 June, 2001, from the World Wide Web.

Luke, A. (2000). Critical Literacy in Australia: A matter of context and standpoint. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 43(5), 448-461.

McMahon, S. & Raphael, T. E. (1997). The book club connection: Literacy learning and classroom talk. New York: Teachers College Press.

Palinscar, A. S. & Brown, D. A. (1987). Enhancing instructional time through attention to metacognition. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 20(2), 66-74.

Paris, S. C. & Winograd, P. (1990). How metacognition can promote academic learning and instruction. In B.F.Jones and L.Idol, (Eds), Dimensions of thinking and cognitive instruction. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 15-51.

Routman, R. (1991). Invitations: Changing as teachers and Learners. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Slavin, R. E. (1994). Cooperative Learning: Theory, Research and Practice. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Wiederhold, C. & Kagan, S. (1995). Cooperative Learning and Higher Level Thinking: The Q-matrix. San Juan Capistrano, California: Kagan Cooperative Learning.

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